Bài Học Số 46: Giới Thiệu Về Việt Nam Bằng Tiếng Anh Phần 1 nằm trong chương trình tự học dịch thuật nhằm mục đích hướng dẫn các bạn học sinh, sinh viên, những người đi làm có thể hệ thống lại kiến thức tiếng Anh của bản thân và áp dụng thực tế vào trong công việc và cuộc sống. Chúng tôi hy vọng với bài học này sẽ giúp các bạn biết thêm về những câu nói giới thiệu về Việt Nam bằng tiếng Anh để thuận tiện hơn trong giao tiếp khi nói chuyện với người nước ngoài về đất nước Việt Nam của mình.
The Socialist Republic of Vietnam
Area: 330.363 sq.km
Population: over 68,000,000
Vietnam lies on the eastern seaboard of the Indochinese peninsula. It borders China in the north, Laos and Kampuchea in the west, and looks out on the East Sea (Pacific) in the east and the south.
It is essentially a tropical country with a humid monsoon climate. Annual mean
temperature is over 20°C throughout the country (Hanoi 23°4 – Hue 25°1k Ho Chi Minh City 26°9). In July, the average is 28°6 in Hanoi, 28°9 in Hue and 27°6 in Saigon. On the average, it receives more than 1,500 mm of rainfall a year in the plains and 2,000 – 3,000 mm in the mountain. Yearly mean relative humidity exceeds 80 % of even 90% in the rainy season. The dry season lasts from November to April, the wet season from May to October. In the North, the dry season is cool. Sometimes the North has harsh winter (minimum in Hanoi 2°7). Rivers are abundant. The Red River and the Mekong River, the biggest ones, discharge respectively 122,109 cubic metres and 1,400,109 cubic metres.
Mountains and hills cover four-fifths of the territory
(highest peak: Fansipan 3,142 m). Stretching over 1,400 km from North to South, the mountain system runs from the Northwestern border to Eastern Nam Bo. The alluvial
plains, flat and low, are very populous: Red River delta
(15,000 sq. km, – with a 3,000 km long dyke network), Mekong River delta (22,000 sq.km).
Minerals: coal, iron, aluminium, tin, apatite, oil … Agricultural and forestry products: rice, maize, sweet potatoes, pea-nuts, soya, industrial crops (rubber, lacquer, coffee, tea, tobacco, cotton, coconut, sugar cane, jute …). Tropical, subtropical and temperature fruits: banana, longan, litchi, mango, mangosteen, pineapple, orange, tangerine, plum, pear, peach. The forests contain valuable species for timber, oil or resin-bearing trees and medicinal plants.
5 Cities: Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh – City, Haiphong, Danang, Can Tho.
59 provinces: Ha Giang, Cao Bang, Lao Cai, Bac Can, Lai Chau, Dien Bien, Tuyên Quang, Lang Son, Yen Bai, Thai Nguyen, Vinh Phuc, Bạc Giang, Phu Tho, Son La, Bac Ninh, Ha Tay, Quang Ninh, Hai Duong, Hung Yen, Hoa Binh, Ha Nam, Thai Binh, Nam Dinh, Ninh Binh, Thanh Hóa, Nghe An, Ha Tinh, Quang Binh, Quang Tri, Thua Thien Hue, Quang Nam, Quang Ngai, Binh Dinh, Phu Yen, Khanh Hoa, Ninh Thuận, Binh Thuan, Kontum, Gia Lai, Daklak, Daknong, Lam Dong, Binh Phuoc, Binh Duong, Dong Nai, Tay Ninh, Ba Ria – Vung Tau, Long An, Tien Giang, Dong Thap, An Giang, Ben Tre, Vinh Long, Tra Vinh, Hau Giang, Soc Trang, Kien Giang, Bac Lieu, Ca Mau.
B – HISTORY
– Paleolithic: human presence (500,000 – 300,000 B.C.)
– Hoa Binh and Bac Son neolithic culture (about 10,000 years ago)
– The different ethnic groups now forming the population of Vietnam belong to the group of Southern Mongolians crossing with the autochtonous Australo-Negroid group.
One of these ethnic groups was the Viet (living South of the Yangtse). Among them those who resisted Chinese assimilation became the Vietnamese (Vietnam = Viet ethnic group; Nam = South).
Bronze Age: The Hung Kings of the Lac Viet tribes – Dong Son civilization (1st millenium B.C.).
– Iron Age (3rd Cent. B.C) – King An Duong of the Au Viet tribes.
One thousand years of Chinese domination.
189 B.C.: Annexion by the Chinese Empire (Triệu Đà)
40 – 43: Insurrection led by the Trung Sisters.
544: Ly Nam De’s insurrection.
Many unsuccessful uprisings.
Nine hundred years of independence
|939:||Bach Dang victory over the Chinese (by Ngo Quyen). Independent Vietnam.|
|939 – 968:||Ngo dynasty|
|968 – 980:||Dinh dynasty (Dinh Tien Hoang)|
|980 – 1009:||Le dynasty (Le Hoan)|
|1009 – 1225:||Ly dynasty – Thang Long (Hanoi) became capital of the country (1010). Victory over the Chinese Sung invaders (1075)|
|1225 – 1400:||Tran dynasty: Victorious resistance against the Sino – Mongolian Yuan: 1257, 1288 (2nd Bach Dang victory in 1288). The Ly and Tran dynasties promoted a brilliant culture known as Thang Long culture.|
|1400 – 1407:||Ho dynasty|
|1407 – 1427:||Invasion and occupation by the Chinese (Ming); National liberation war led by Le Loi and Nguyen Trai (1418 – 1427)|
|1427 – 1586:||Le dynasty.|
|Mid-15th Century:||apogee of the feudal monarchy. Crisis by the end of the century|
|16th Century:||The illegitimate Mac dynasty (Mac Dang Dung) 1527 – 1591|
|17th – 18th Century:||Rivalry between the Trinh Lords (in the North) and the Nguyen Lords (in the South). Secession|
|18th Century:||Crisis of feudalism. Great peasant insurrections (Victory of the Tay Son movement headed by Nguyen Hue who defeated the Siamese (1785) and the Chinese Ching (1789) invaders|
|1786 – 1802:||Tay Son dynasty|
|1802 – 1845:||Nguyen dynasty: French attack against Da Nang (1858). Nam Bo (Cochinchina) annexed by France (1867); First French attack against Hanoi (1875); French “protectorate” imposed over the rest of the country (1884)|
Eighty years of French colonialism
|1860 – 1900:||Popular armed struggle against the French colonialists. Patriotic Can Vuong (Serve the King) movement led by Confucian scholars (Phan Dinh Phụng, Tan Thuat – only Hoang Hoa Tham held out until 1913)|
|1900 – 1916:||Uprisings of ethnic minorities in the mountain areas. Abortive insurrection led by King Duy Tân|
|1904 – 1925:||Patriotic and renovation movements led by modernist scholars (Phan Bội Châu, Phan Chu Tinh…)|
|1920:||At the Tours Congress, Nguyen Ai Quoc (Ho Chi Minh) voted for the French Socialist Party joining the 3rd International|
|1925:||Great workers’ strikes. Foundation of the Vietnam Revolutionary Youth Association|
|3 Feb. 1930:||Foundation of the Communist Party.|
|Feb. 1930:||Failure of the nationalist Vietnam Quoc
Dan Dang’s insurrection
|Sept. 1930:||Nghe Tinh Soviets|
|1936 – 1939:||Large-scale political activities under the leadership of the Communist Party|
|1940 – 1941:||Local insurrections in Bac Son, Nam Ky, Do Luong|
|1941:||Foundation of the Viet Minh League|
|1941 – 1945:||Political and guerrilla actions against the Japanese fascists (occupying French Indochina) and the French colonialists.|
|Dec, 1944:||Foundation of the Liberation Army|
From the 1945 Revolution to the Socialist Republic of Vietnam
|9 March 1945:||The colonial French administration over-thrown by the Japanese|
|August 1945:||General insurrection throughout the country|
|2 Sept. 1945:||Proclamation of independence: foundation of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam|
|23 Sept. 1945:||French reconquest of Nam Bo (Cochinchina)|
|19 Dec. 1946:||Beginning of nation-wide resistance against the French colonialists (later backed by the U.S.A.)|
|October 1950:||Big victory of the popular forces at the Sino-Vietnamese frontier|
|7 May 1954:||Dien Bien Phu (the French forces capiture lated)|
|20 July 1954:||Geneva Agreement on Vietnam; Vietnam divided into two parts|
|1954 – 1960:||Ngo Dinh Diem with US aid carried out “Unilateral war” against the patriots in South Vietnam, a US-neocolony|
|1960:||Foundation of the NFL (South Vietnam National Front for Liberation)|
|1961 – 1963:||US intervention in the form of “special war” in South Vietnam|
|1965:||Direct US military intervention in South Vietnam “limited war” – Bombing of the North (1965 – 1972)|
|Tet 1968:||General offensive by the popular forces in the South. Provisional cessation of bombing of the North; opening of the negotiations is Paris|
|1969 – 1972:||Vietnamization” of the war by Nixon in the South|
|1972:||Big offensives by the popular forces in the South; US bombing (B.52’s) and blockade North Vietnam|
|27 Jan. 1973:||Paris Agreement|
|March 1975:||The popular forces attacked Ban Me Thuot|
|30 April 1975:||Liberation of Saigon; fall of the US puppet regime|
|1976:||General elections to the All-Vietnam National Assembly Foundation of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. The 4th National Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam
approves the programme for socialist construction of the whole country
|20 Sept. 1977:||Vietnam becomes member of the UNO|
|27 June. 1978:||Vietnam joins the COMECON|
|30 Nov. 1978:||Vietnam – Soviet Union Friendship and Co-operation Treaty|
|31 Dec. 1978:||The population and armed forces of Tay Ninh province defeat a large offensive by Pol Pot troops.|
|10 Jan. 1979:||Vietnam recognizes the Kampuchean People’s Revolutionary Council|
|17 Feb – 5 March 1979:||Chinese attack against Vietnam along the length of its border (1,600 km). Beijing withdraws its troops from Vietnam|
|March 1982:||5th Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam|
|Dec. 1986:||6th Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam.|
Nếu bạn có nhu cầu tìm kiếm một công việc dịch thuật thì hãy tham khảo bài viết tuyển dụng cộng tác viên dịch thuật hoặc liên hệ ngay với công ty dịch thuật CVN để được tư vấn miễn phí về lộ trình ứng tuyển các vị trí trong thời gian sớm nhất.
Xem thêm các bài viết tự học dịch thuật tiếng anh: