Để giúp giao dịch quốc tế trong lãnh vực văn hoá, chúng tôi xin trích dưới đây một số từ với định nghĩa của UNESCO cho bộ từ điển quốc tế danh mục tiêu đề về phát triển văn hoá: International Thesaurus on Cultural Development). Những từ này có thể là từ mới tạo ra hoặc từ cũ định nghĩa lại cho chính xác. Nội dung này cũng giúp các nhà nghiên cứu văn hóa tham khảo thêm.
ACCULTURATION: contract between culturally differentiated groups and resulting cultural changes in each of them. = Tiếp biến văn hoá.
ACTION RESEARCH: research carried out through participation in the activity to be studied.
ACTIVE POPULATION: statistical concept which denotes the labour force of a whole economy, – the total working population or the occupied population.
ALIENATION: denotes a socio-psychological condition of the individual which involves his estrangement from certain aspects of his social existence.
ANIMATEUR: one who stimulates people to action and guides them in it.
ANIMATION: process of stimulating people to activity and guiding in it.
ART OF LIVING: skill of living a satisfactory life.
ARTIST: use for creative artist; otherwise use “performer”.
AUDIO-VISUAL AID: material such as films, tape recordings, posters and charts utilized for teaching and research purposes.
BALL GAMES: includes football, golf, tennis etc.
BASIC PERSONALITY: psychological configuration peculiar to a given society and providing the matrix in which the traits of individual character develop.
BEQUEST: book, work of art, document, etc. acquired as a gift or a legacy.
BICULTURATION: state of belonging to two cultures.
BRAINDRAIN: emigration of skilled and professional persons.
CABLE TELEVISION: transmission of television programmes from a central station linked to the users by a network of telecommunication cables.
CARTOONIST: a drawer of humorous drawings for the press.
CATHARSIS: relaxation of emotional tension by expressive reaction.
CIVILIZATION: denotes all the material and technical means which serve the pragmatic purposes of human life in its relationship with environment.
CIVILIZATION CRISIS: situation in which a civilization is fundamentally called into question.
COMMUNICATION: a process of sharing information involving the encoding, transmission, decoding, use of and reaction to the message.
COMMUNITY CENTRE: establishment for social recreational and educational activities open to all members of a community.
COMMUTER: person who has to travel daily to get to his working place situated a long way from his home.
CONNOISSEUR: one having expert knowledge and appreciation of an art or arts. Do not confuse with AMATEUR.
CONSERVATION OF NATURE: process of preserving flora and fauna in their natural state.
CONURBATION: a group of adjacent towns which have joined to form an urban area.
CULTURAL MINORITY: group of persons sharing a culture different from that of the majority of the society in which they live.
LITERARY CULTURE: culture in which literary activity predominates.
NATIONAL STEREOTYPE: rigid conception of the reality of a given nation reduced to one or other of its specific aspects.
NEW TOWN: urban space created out of nothing close to a large urban agglomeration in order to control urban development and to supply a pleasant living environment with employment opportunities and cultural facilities.
OPERATING EXPENDITURE: money spent to finance the current activities of an organization.
PERMISSIVE SOCIETY: recent social development in which there are few limits to socially permitted behaviour.
PERSONAL ENRICHMENT: the process of enriching one’s experience and personality.
POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION: general term for all tertiary education.
PRE-VOCATIONAL TRAINING: first introduction to work intended to prepare boys and girls for the choice of an occupation.
PUBLIC READING: reading in public libraries.
PUPIL: educated at level of primary and secondary education.
RACE RELATIONS: use in connection with race discrimination; otherwise use ETHNIC RELATIONS.
RECEIPT: income from payments made for entry to public spectacles.
REFERENCE GROUP: social group with which an individual feels identified and to which he aspires to relate his identity.
REGIONAL CO-OPERATION: in a multi-country region.
RESTORATION OF MONUMENTS: restoring of monuments to their original conditions.
ROYALTIES: payment made to writer, artist, performer on sales, reproduction or performance of his work.
RETRAINING: training designed to provide workers rendered obsolete by technological change with new skills for which there is a demand in the labour market.
RURAL DEVELOPMENT: designed and harmonized growth of rural areas, with emphasis on the improvement of living conditions of communities.
SATELLITE TOWN: urban agglomeration which depends on a metropolis.
SOCIAL ACTION: efforts tending to reduce social inadaptation, be it material, physical, mental or psychological, by the use of solidarity.
SOCIAL INDICATION: numerical data used to assess the various aspects of the life of a society.
SPORT: physical recreation usually of a competitive nature.
SUBCULTURE: forms within a culture linked to a global society, a variant peculiar to a social group or category.
SUPERMARKET: large self-service shop selling a variety of goods.
TECHNICIAN: with more technical knowledge than skilled worker, but with less than an engine.
TRADITION: transmission from one generation to the next of the cultural heritage peculiar to a social group or community.
UNIVERSAL CULTURE: culture liable to extend itself on worldwide range to all the categories of population.
VIDEO RECORDER: machine which records in tape and which reproduces on screen television broadcast.
VIDEOTAPE: special magnetic tape which records simultaneously sound and picture for playback on television equipment.
VISITOR: person who frequents a museum, exhibition, public monument or other static display.
WORKING CLASS CULTURE: pattern of social, artistic and intellectual behavior of the working class.
Bài Học Số 28: Một Số Từ Tiếng Anh Về Phát Triển Văn Hóa (Định Nghĩa Của UNESCO) nằm trong chương trình tự học dịch thuật nhằm mục đích hướng dẫn các bạn học sinh, sinh viên, những người đi làm có thể hệ thống lại kiến thức tiếng Anh của bản thân và áp dụng thực tế vào trong công việc và cuộc sống. Chúng tôi hy vọng với bài học này sẽ giúp các bạn biết thêm một số từ về phát triển văn hóa (Định nghĩa theo UNESCO) để áp dụng vào các trường hợp thực tế.
Nếu bạn có nhu cầu tìm kiếm dịch vụ dịch thuật hoặc dịch thuật chuyên ngành thì hãy liên hệ ngay với công ty dịch thuật CVN để được tư vấn miễn phí và nhận được báo giá dịch thuật tốt nhất trên thị trường hiện nay.
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